Magnetogenetics

magneto-xmen Magnetogenetically Modified

Introduction

Magnetogenetics is a relatively new field of research , at least regarding published research . You can be sure that the technique has been studied for decades in the bowels of deep state laboratories and also tested in the field on unsuspecting ‘lab humans’ . It is closely related to other similar fields of study such as optogenetics , chemogenetics and sonogenetics .

All three rely on the same basic principle , that is the remote stimulation of cellular activity . All three revolve around the implantation of nano particles to a specific cellular region and the remote activation of the target cell group using an applied energy or substance .

The nano particles can be biological (DNA or RNA) , metallic or mineral based , or a combination of these three . The applied energy can take the form of light in optogenetics , magnetic fields in magnetogenetics (from electromagnetic energy) , a chemical activator in chemogenetics and sound waves in sonogenetics .

Ion Channels

To fully understand magnetogenetics we must first consider the basic principles of intracellular signaling . Ion channels are the critical structure in a cell membrane which allows intracellular signaling , they can be thought of as a gateway to the cell .

This article will concentrate on neuronal cells .

ion-channels Source : Eri’s Blog

As the ions flow in or out of the cell a tiny electrical current is created also known as the action potential , electricity can be simply thought of as a flow of charged particles (ions) . The cell responds to the action potential and releases a neurotransmitter which can be a specific chemical or protein . The neurotransmitter chemical then travels to another cell having receptors which are tuned to accept them , where another cellular response is initiated .

The whole process acts like a chain reaction and operates in a fraction of a second , the vascular system can transport neurotransmitters throughout the body until they reach their target cells . Ultimately the whole process serves to coordinate and trigger bodily and sensory functions .

Brain Synapses

In the case of the human brain the system is similar although the neuronal cells are directly connected to each other . The action potential travels along a cellular nerve called the axon , the tiny gap between the terminals of each neuron is called the synapse , this is the vital point where each neuron is almost connected .

Learning is achieved by strengthening the connections between each neuronal cell cluster . The strengthening happens by repetition , in basic terms each time a specific cell connection is activated it becomes stronger .

brain-cell-diag Brain Neurons

A few facts about cellular ion channels :

  • Ion channels are formed from a specific biological protein known as a membrane protein .
  • Ion channels are fixed in position on the cell membrane .
  • Ion channels open in response to a stimuli such as an electrical voltage , chemical reagent or a particular protein .
  • The ions are formed from dissolved salts such as sodium (Na+) , Potassium (K+) and calcium (Ca2+) .
  • Ion channels generally only allow a specific type of ion to cross the cell membrane , e.g. only Na+ (sodium) .
  • Some ion channels allow ion flow in only one direction .
  • Some ion channels open quickly and close slowly .
  • Some ion channels open slowly and close quickly .
  • Some ion channels are open all of the time .
  • A single cell membrane may contain many different types ion channels .
  • Also different types of neurons will have different types of ion channels .

In short , the complex order of cellular ion channels and the different stimuli which can activate the ion channels creates a multitude of differing neuronal signals which ultimately create and govern every sensory function . Sight , sound , taste , hearing and touch are the result of a myriad of cellular responses , all governed essentially by ion channels .

TRP channel (Transient Receptor Potential channel)

A TRP channel is a sub-group of ion channels that are involved in sensory reception . The TRP ion channels can respond to a variety of stimuli including heat (thermoreception) , water (osmosis) , chemicals (chemoreception) , mechanical pressure (mechanoreception) and radiation such as infrared light (photoreception) .

Some individual TRP channels can respond to several different stimuli , as such they are known as a ‘superfamily’ of ion channels .

TRP channels are triggered primarily by calcium .

TRP channel disruption and the resulting inability for neuronal cells to regulate calcium is closely linked to neurodegenerative disease such as Alzheimers .

vanilla-sky Open Your Eyes – Vanilloid Sky

TRP channels can be further divided into several subfamilies including TRPC, TRPV, TRPM, TRPML, TRPP, TRPA, and TRPN .

This article will concentrate on the subfamilies listed below .

  • TRPV (Vanilloid)
  • TRPA (subfamily A)

TRPV

To further complicate matters each TRPV subfamily can also be subdivided numerically into TRPV1 – TRPV6 . Each subdivision behaves slightly differently in response to different stimuli .

TRPV channels are located throughout the cerebral cortex , the central nervous system (CNS) which primarily involves the brain and spinal cord and also the peripheral nervous system (PNS) .

The table below gives an overview of TRPV expression , effects and triggers

As can be seen in the table , TRPV channels are extremely temperature sensitive and are also able to ‘sense’ pain , also termed nociception .

trpv-table Source : TRPV Channels in thr Brain (PDF)

TRPV1

TRPV1 channels are found in the cells of various bodily organs such as the heart , stomach and testes . TRPV1 is considered to be the ‘daddy’ of all other TRPV channels .

In regard to neural functioning , TRPV1 is found in the spine and the trigeminal nerves . The trigeminal nerve is the largest of the cranial nerves and is related to the senses of sight , smell and taste .

A tingling sensation in the facial skin , mouth area or nose can point to some form of irritation of the trigeminal nerve .

trigeminal-nerve-diag Trigeminal Nerve

A few facts about TRPV1 channels :

Glutamate is the most important neurotransmitter in the brain and the central nervous system (CNS) . Glutamate is known as an excitory neurotransmitter , it basically activates other cells that have glutamate receptors , almost all neuronal cells in the brain and the CNS have glutamate receptors . Glutamate also regulates GABA production , which has the opposite effect to glutamate in that it reduces cellular excitability .

  • Peripheral nerve endings in the CNS are particularly expressive of glutamate when their cellular TRPV1 channels are activated . An example of this is the sensation of heat from a chilli pepper .
  • Over excitability of TRPV1 channels is thought to cause cellular death by inducing shearing forces .
  • TRPV1 channels are though to play a role in natural cellular death .
  • TRPV1 channels are also thought to play a role in neurogenesis .
  • TRPV1 channels have been associated with longevity and metabolism .
  • TRPV1 channels are particularly active in the hypothalamus , which in turn is connected to the endocrine system . The endocrine system controls hormone release from the testes or ovaries (testosterone or oestrogen) and the adrenal glands (cortisol) .
  • TRPV1 channels are sensitive to heat (>43°).
  • TRPV1 channels are pain receptors .
  • Cannabis compounds are potent activators of TRPV1 channels .

chilli-peppers LIVE LONGER AND ENJOY BETTER ORGASMS, TOO?

Less is known about the other TRPV channels 2-6 , at least regarding published research . Research is ongoing as to the precise functions of TRPV2 – TRPV6 . Much of the research involves nulling the specific TRPV channels in knockout mice , the effects can then be compared to ‘wild’ mice with intact TRPV channels .

Do you think that there may be people or organizations willing to conduct similar research using ‘knockout humans’ ?

TRPV2

A few facts about TRPV2 channels :

  • TRPV2 channels are thought to function as mechanoreceptors and/or osmosensors .

Osmosensor : Regulates the volume of a cell and the liquid level of a cell .
Mechanoreceptor : Sensitive to touch , pressure and deformation .

  • In TRPV2 knockout mice (where TRPV2 expression is limited) , embryo viability and embryo weight were reduced . This is thought to be related to macrophage activity , which in turn implicates TRPV2 in being an important factor in the immune system .
  • Cannabis compounds are potent activators of TRPV2 channels .
  • TRPV2 channels are sensitive to heat (>53°) .
  • TRPV2 also plays an important role in food and fluid intake and cardiovascular function .

TRPV3

A few facts about TRPV3 channels :

TRPV4

A few facts about TRPV4 channels :

  • TRPV4 channels are thought to function as a mechanoreceptors and/or osmosensors .
  • TRPV4 channels are sensitive to a wide variety of other stimuli including chemicals , plant compounds and a variety of ligand types .
  • Unusually , TRPV4 can also be activated in the absence of a specific stimuli .
  • It is thought that TRPV4 channels primarily react to and govern cellular hypotonicity and also act to control intracellular calcium ion concentration .
  • TRPV4 knockout mice experience cellular hypotonicity .

hypertonic-cell Hypertonic, hypotonic and isotonic (cells)

  • TRPV4 channels are thought to affect the motility of human sperm
  • TRPV4 channels are though to play a role in the sensation of itching .
  • Mutated TRPV4 channels are responsible for a wide variety of degenerative diseases .
  • TRPV4 has also been found in the epithelial tissue of a wide variety of bodily organs .
  • TRPV4 is important for vascular system function .
  • Over expression of TRPV4 causes heart failure .

TRPV5 and TRPV6

  • Both TRPV5 & 6 are related to kidney function .
  • Like TRPV4 , TRPV6 has also been found in the epithelial tissue .
  • TRPV6 knockout mice suffered reduced intestinal absorption of calcium , which could have domino effect on the functioning of all TRPV channels .

TRPA (Ankyrin)

A few facts about TRPA channels :

  • The TRPA channel set contains only one subset which is TRPA1 .
  • TRPA1 is expressed in the trigeminal ganglia in the brain and dorsal root ganglia of the spine .
  • TRPA1 is also found in the inner ear .
  • TRPA1 channels are thought to be linked with TRPV channels , TRPV channels are though to modulate TRPA channel actions .
  • TRPA1 channels are thought to act as sensors for a wide variety of noxious irritants and pollutants .
  • TRPA1 can be activated by cannabis compounds .

Conclusion

The importance of ion channels in neural functioning is paramount .

Ion channels form the basis of all sensory and nervous system functions and help the human brain to interpret everything we hear , see , touch and smell .

There are many more complex functions performed by ion channels which are less understood .

So what if ion channel function could be remotely manipulated using a combination of genetically engineered nano particles and an externally applied electromagnetic wave , radio wave or similar ?

Part II coming soon


Further reading :

Ion Channels :

  1. Ion Channel
  2. Ion Channel (Britannica)
  3. Fantastic Complexity in Brain Potassium Channels
  4. Nanochannels: Yale Engineers Design the First Functional Artificial Ion Channel

TRP calcium channels :

  1. Sensing with TRP channels (PDF)
  2. TRP Ion Channel Function in Sensory Transduction and Cellular Signaling Cascades
  3. Hot flash: TRPV channels in the brain (PDF)
  4. What do we know about the transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) ion channel?
  5. TRPV channels in the brain
  6. The puzzle of TRPV4 channelopathies
  7. TRPV4: Molecular Conductor of a Diverse Orchestra
  8. TRPV4 calcium entry channel: a paradigm for gating diversity
  9. Perspectives of TRPV1 Function on the Neurogenesis and Neural Plasticity

 

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