Cultocracy note :
The following article includes excerpts from a 2008 report into neuroscience produced by US government advisory body the National Research Council , the paper was produced for the military & intelligence communities .
The report outlines methods that can be used by military & intelligence agencies to further their inhumane criminal enterprises & the quest for full spectrum dominance of the population . Although this report is from 2008 these technologies have been developed for decades in secret off the books ‘black projects’ . The research & experimentation is a continuation of the MK Ultra research from the 1960’s & 1970’s , which itself was borne out of Nazi research in the same fields during WWII .
The technology is advancing , neural implants have been superceded by synthetically engineered nano particles . Nano particles can be introduced using a wide range of vectors across a broad surface area of the population . The related neural imaging methods are constantly being perfected , the wavelengths are cloaked using frequency hopping multiplexing methods , they cannot be measured accurately . The deep state organisations involved are anxious to maintain a lead over their rivals , a new arms race has emerged .
The scientific methods need to be tested , rats & guinea pigs are of no use , human subjects are required . Be under no illusion , these technologies are currently being tested on targets across the globe , both individuals & whole populations , with disastrous results for the people involved . Many of the effects are silent & subtle and will only emerge over time , maybe this is part of the plan . They represent the deepest , darkest & most destructive elements of humanity , crimes against humanity is an understatement .
MK Ultra never went away , it simply went underground .
EMERGING COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE AND RELATED TECHNOLOGIES
Committee on Military and Intelligence Methodology for Emergent Neurophysiological and Cognitive/Neural Science Research in the Next Two Decades
This is a report of work supported by contract HHM40205D0011 between the Defense Intelligence Agency and the National Academy of Sciences .
THE BOTTOM LINE
Important research is taking place in detection of deception, neuropsychopharmacology, functional neuroimaging, computational biology, and distributed human-machine systems,
among other areas.
Newer brain imaging technologies promising both high spatial and high temporal resolution of brain processes began to appear only in the past decade. This research should combine multiple measures and assessment technologies, such as imaging techniques and the recording of electrophysiological, biochemical, and pharmacological responses.
Nanotechnologies will allow delivery of drugs across the blood-brain barrier in ways not now possible.
Functional Neuroimaging :
Functional neuroimaging uses technology to visualize qualitative as well as measure quantitative aspects of brain function, often with the goal of understanding the relationships between activity in a particular portion of the brain and a specific task, stimulus, cognition, behavior, or neural process.
Electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography measure localized electrical or magnetic fluctuations in neuronal activity.
Positron emission tomography,functional magnetic resonance imaging, nearinfrared spectroscopic imaging and functional transcranial Doppler sonography can measure localized changes in cerebral blood flow related to neural activity.
Positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance spectroscopy can measure regional modulation of brain metabolism and neurochemistry in response to neural activity or processes.
Simultaneous multimodal imaging is an emerging area of great interest for research, clinical, commercial, and defense applications.
Real-time, continuous readouts of neuroimaging results will become increasingly important for the IC (intelligence community) and the Department of Defense (DOD).
Computational Biology Applied to Cognition, Functional Neuroimaging,
Genomics, and Proteomics :
Computing is used pervasively today in the fields of neuroscience and cognition for analysis and modeling. The larger issue is whether a cognitive system can be constructed in the next
two decades that, while not precisely mimicking a human brain, could perform some similar tasks, especially in a particular environment. This search for what is known as
artificial intelligence has for many decades been a goal of computing efforts.
Perhaps most revolutionary would be an intelligent machine that uses the Internet to train itself. Currently, the Internet is by far the closest we have come to a total database of knowledge. One can imagine an intelligent system that continuously monitors and processes not only accumulated knowledge but also public and nonpublic information on current events.
Distributed Human-Machine Systems :
Advances in neurophysiological and cognitive science research have fueled a surge of research aimed at more effectively combining human and machine capabilities.
The Big Picture: Bridging the Science and Technology for the Decision Maker
Some of the most exciting of these technologies access the brain using noncontact, noninvasive breakthroughs at the nexus of physics, imaging processing, and neurophysiology.
To the extent that these advances can be realized, they will be used to improve the human condition .
WHAT DECISION MAKERS WANT TO KNOW :
• Can cognitive states and intentions of persons of interest be read?
• Can cognitive capacities be enhanced?
• Can cognitive states and intentions be controlled?
• Can cognitive states be used to drive devices?
Current Cognitive Neuroscience Research and Technology: Selected Areas of Interest
To “read” minds scientists must understand how minds really work to come up
with a technology that is of real use…
The committee believes that experimentation, with the careful control of any number of possibly confounding variables, will result in important progress toward understanding the nature of psychological states over the next two decades, using current and yet-to-be developed technologies.
Inexpensive, noninvasive endocrine assays and noninvasive, high-density electroencephalographic and functional brain imaging technology with high spatial and temporal resolution of brain processes have advanced rapidly.
Several other sensing techniques are being investigated for their potential ability to discern deception or concealed knowledge . Some are remote, noncontact sensing techniques that measure autonomic function and are already in use. For instance, laser Doppler vibrometry is a remote sensing technique for heart rate, blood pressure, and several other physical properties.
Importantly, human institutional review board standards require, at a minimum, that individuals not be put at any greater risk than they would be in their normal everyday lives. The committee believes that certain situations would allow such testing under “normal risk” situations; although the committee strongly endorses the necessity of realistic, but ethical, research in this area, it does not specify the nature of that research in this report.
Recent advances in neuropsychopharmacology that have the potential to be “game changers” include a much improved knowledge of brain function and delivery systems such as are enabled by nanotechnology that would allow substances to cross the blood-brain barrier.
Discoveries in neuroscience can be exploited to create new cellular or subcellular targets for drugs, new drug delivery systems, and new strategies to direct or control drug effects and achieve desired psychological effects.
Nanotechnology in Medicine :
Some observers say it is likely that the paradigm of the pharmaceutical industry will change, from “discovering” drugs by screening many compounds to the purposeful engineering of desired molecules.
Nanotechnology is a rapidly expanding, multidisciplinary field that applies engineering and manufacturing principles at a molecular level. It can be roughly divided into categories that include nanobiotechnology, biological microelectro mechanical systems, microfluidics, biosensors, microarrays, and tissue microengineering.
These new but progressing technologies include (1) the construction of nanoscale-sized structures for diagnostics, bio-sensors, and local drug delivery; (2) genomics, proteomics, and nanoengineered microbes .
Of particular importance may be nanotechnologies that allow delivery of drugs across the blood-brain barrier in ways now impossible.
The engineering of nano delivery systems for small molecules, proteins, and DNA has led to the emergence of entirely new and previously unpredicted fields.
The creation of artificial cells with appropriate physiologic properties may provide a better
understanding of normal physiological processes.
Integration of controlled-release drug reservoirs with microchips provides unlimited potential for modulating drug release. Nanotubes that have large relative internal volumes also can be functionalized on the inside surface.
Another method of fabrication involves synthesizing carbon nanotubes using fullerene. These nanotubes range from one nanometer to tens of nanometers in diameter and are from several to hundreds of microns long. Drugs can be covalently attached to functional groups on the external surface of the nanotubes. Another drug delivery approach uses nanoshells or dielectric-metal (gold-coated silica) nanospheres.
This technology allows delivering drugs at very precise locations in the brain.
FUNCTIONAL NEUROIMAGING :
Broadly defined, functional neuroimaging is the use of neuroimaging technology to measure aspects of brain function, often with the goal of understanding the relationship between regional brain activity and specific tasks, stimuli, cognition, behaviors or neural processes.
Common technologies for functional neuroimaging include multichannel electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCDS), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS).
EEG and MEG measure localized electrical or magnetic fluctuations in neuronal activity. PET, fMRI, fNIRS, and fTCDS can measure localized changes in cerebral blood flow related to neural activity. PET and MRS can measure regional modulation of brain metabolism and neurochemistry in response to neural activity or processes. These functional neuroimaging technologies are complementary, and each offers a different window onto complex neural processes. Because of this complementarity, multimodal imaging is an emerging area of great interest for research, clinical, commercial, and defense applications.
Over the next two decades, good brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are likely to be a great of interest to the gaming industry as well as to the rehabilitation, medical, and military sectors, and neuroimaging and neurophysiology will play a central role in those endeavors. Indeed, this has been a focus of the Defense Advance Research Projects Agency’s (DARPA’s) Augmented Cognition program for several years.
Similarly, DARPA has been working on EEG and fNIRS-based BCI’s .
It is, for example, unlikely that brain–computer interfaces based on fMRI could be loaded onto jets or spaceships (satellites) in the next two decades, whereas an EEG or fNIRS-based system could very well be so deployed in that timeframe.
Another example is the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to facilitate neural changes that have been identified through neuroimaging. TMS is a noninvasive way to excite neurons in the brain: rapidly changing magnetic fields (electromagnetic induction) are used to induce weak electric currents in neural tissue, allowing the brain to be activated from outside with minimal discomfort.
One limitation (of TMS) is the short duration of its effect (minutes to an hour after stimulation), although some results suggest that coupling TMS with pharmacological manipulations of the dopaminergic system could facilitate long-term consolidation or longer effects of TMS.Neuroimaging tools such as MRI, fMRI, or fNIRS could play a role in
providing precise localization for such technology integrations.
Recent advances and developments allow for functional neuroimaging capability with real-time or near-real-time data acquisition and analysis that is becoming cheaper, portable, and more user friendly. Progress continues to be made in both functional neuroimaging and neurophysiological methods toward the holy grail of neuroimaging, namely, millisecond-level temporal resolution with precise spatial localization.
Many years ago it became known that electrical activity in the brain could be recorded by placing electrodes on the surface of the scalp .
Electroencephalographic recordings are of two main types: continuous and discrete. Continuous recordings are the traditional multitrace waveforms recorded since EEGs began and activity is classified by the frequency of the dominant waveform (0-40 Hz) on any given channel, such as alpha waves. Discrete recordings are triggered by an event, such as an external flash of light, and then the next 1 to 4 seconds of activity are recorded. In discrete recordings, the “normal” EEG waves are considered background.
Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) uses postrecording computer analysis to analyze the relationship between each of the electrodes placed at the scalp.
The resulting EEG brain maps are then analyzed with sophisticated statistical techniques to reveal patterns. The results of these analyses can be presented in graphical form as topographical displays of brain electrical activity. Applications include neurofeedback, or neurotherapy .
Positron Emission Tomography :
PET can be used to produce a three-dimensional image or map of functional processes in the brain. The system detects pairs of gamma rays emitted indirectly by a positron-emitting radioisotope, which is introduced into the body on a metabolically active molecule. Images of regional metabolic activity or blood flow are then reconstructed by computer analysis. Modern versions of PET scanners are combined with CT scanning and MRI scanning capability to coregister metabolic activity with high-resolution anatomic images of the brain, creating three-dimensional metabolic/anatomic overlays.
PET’s exquisite ability to elucidate specific receptor binding sites/activity within the brain and its ability to produce images of brain metabolism mean it is not likely to be supplanted by other neuroimaging technologies in the foreseeable future. Indeed molecular neuroimaging via PET is likely to show the most growth in functional neuroimaging research over the next decade .
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging :
MRI is widely accepted as the gold standard for anatomical neuroimaging.
The most common form of functional MRI (fMRI) utilizes a blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) contrast mechanism to distinguish areas of neural activity. Other methodologies for fMRI include dynamic contrast techniques and noncontrast techniques (e.g., arterial spin labeling).
Real-time data acquisition (single-trial fMRI) and near-real-time data analysis (hundreds of milliseconds delay) of complex cognitive tasks have been demonstrated and will expand the applications areas of relevance to the research, clinical, and defense communities.
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy :
Multiple studies have demonstrated the ability of MRS to detect biomarkers of complex neural processes, and rapid imaging becomes possible with high-field magnetic resonance technology .
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a completely noninvasive, nonhazardous technology for functional brain mapping, localizing and characterizing the electrical activity of the CNS by measuring the associated magnetic fields emanating from the brain. Every electrical current generates a magnetic field. However, unlike an electrical signal, magnetic fields are not distorted by traveling through the skull, and the source of the summated magnetic fields can be triangulated within a few millimeters. MEG provides functional mapping information on the working brain.
Modern MEG scanners use as many as 300 superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) 12 detectors, allowing very fast acquisition and extremely high localization of the source of the electromagnetic signal.
The advantages of MEG over fMRI and PET include the measurement of brain activity with higher temporal and spatial resolution.
Transcranial Ultrasonography :
The skull is thin enough in a few “monographic windows” to provide a path for the ultrasonic signal and can provide accurate real-time measurements of blood flow velocity.
The transorbital window, located above the zygomatic arch (the “temple”), is used to image the posterior, anterior, and medial cerebral arteries along with a few of the branches that provide blood flow to specific areas of the brain.
In functional transcranial doppler sonography (fTDS), the spatial resolution is determined by the volume of the brain supplied with blood by the vessel under study.
Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy :
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an emerging neuroimaging technology with several characteristics that make it a good candidate for use in military and intelligence applications. fNIRS uses light in the near infrared (700-900 nm), outside the visible spectrum, to measure changes in brain tissue that are associated with neuronal activity—in other words, it provides accurate spatial information about ongoing brain activity. Although fNIRS can measure several parameters associated with neural activity, the most common is the change in the ratio of oxygenated to deoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood, a measure analogous to fMRI’s BOLD signal.
fNIRS has also been reported to measure changes in the optical properties of the cell membranes themselves that occur when a neuron fires, referred to as an event-related optical signal (EROS).
Of importance in military applications, fNIRS is safe, noninvasive, and highly portable, even wireless.
Other advances currently under investigation include closed-loop human brain–computer interfaces and implantable optodes. Implantable optodes could allow realizing the holy grail of neuroimaging, the direct, noninvasive measurement of neuronal activity with
millisecond-level time resolution and superior spatial resolution.The potential experimental uses of this technology are very exciting and include ecologically valid brain–computer interfaces .
Part II coming soon .