All that glitters is not Gold – Quantum Nanocrystals

Quantum confinement :
Quantum dots are extremely small semiconductors , they can be imagined as particles in a ‘box’ (quantum dot) . As the size of the ‘box’ decreases the electrons will be condensed leading to  quantum confinement . In this state the particle will have a specific energy level and is said to be quantized . A particles specific energy level is inversely proportionate to it’s wavelength . The quantum confinement of a particle leads to a blue shift , i.e. A decrease in wavelength . In visible light, this shifts the color from the red end of the spectrum to the blue end .

In short this means that a nanocrystal can be tuned to absorb a specific EM frequency & further emit a specific frequency , dependent on its size & structure .

In addition nanocrystals can be ‘tuned’ in real time by applying an external electromagnetic wave , meaning that the crystal is able to absorb & emit differing EM wavelengths . This is known as the Quantum-confined Stark effect , such crystals are termed tunable nanomaterials . Tunable nanomaterials were first developed for the aerospace & defence industries .

Furthemore , nanocrystals can be layered , thus enabling the synchronous absorption & emmission of a broad spectrum of different EM wavelengths .

Quantum dots are currently forging a new frontier in computing & AI .

Metal Oxide Nanocrystals :

Metal oxide nanocrystals display a wide variety of complex structures and exhibit complex optical , electronic and magnetic properties , this is dependent on the structure & composition of the crystal . Rare earth metal oxides are commonly used , this is due to the unique optical & magnetic properties of rare earth metals . Apart from opium , Taliban fighters & U.S. troops , Afghanistan has one of the largest deposits of rare earth metals .

  • Nanocrystals can be formed in a variety of shapes including dot, sphere, cube, rod & hexagon .
  • Nanocrystals can be designed to bind to specific cell receptors in the human body .
  • Magnetic nanocrystals can be formed which are activated with an applied electromagnetic wavelength .
  • Magnetic nanoparticles can be synthesized using several methods including chemical reactions , thermal decomposition & microwave / laser application .
  • Metal oxide nanocrystals can be formed which absord & emit specific frequencies from the electromagnetic spectrum .
  • Certain rare earth oxide nanocrystals display strong magneto-optic properties . Also   known as Faraday rotation this phenomenon describes the interaction of light & magnetic fields . Faraday rotation can be used to enhance & measure weak electrical currents in molecules & optical fibres . Applications include biological imagingbiological sensing .
  • Quantum dot nanocrystals are also used in brain mapping applicationsneuro science .
  • Nano crystals can be cultured from an initial nuclei containing the crystal atoms using a process called nucleation .
  • Nanocrystals can be transported to the host via a carbon nanotube or nanofibres which house a payload containing the initial nuclei material .
  • Nanocrystals can be formed synthetically using a variety of methods to control the size & structure .
  • A common method for controlling the growth of nanocrystals is to use ligands also known as surfactants (surface active agents) . These organic compounds inhibit the growth of the nanocrystal and are also known as capping agents .
  • Chemical stabilizers can also be used to halt crystal expansion .
  • Surfactants can also be used to shape the crystal , encouraging or inhibiting growth across a certain plane .
  • Nanocrystals can also be combined to form larger lattice type structures .

Related :

Quantum Dot Nanocrystals :

  1. Hybrid nanomaterials design synthesis and biomedical applications
  2. Quantum Dots (PDF)
  3. Nano: Quantum dots & Carbon Nanomaterials & Magnetic Nanomaterials
  4. Quantum confinement effect – an overview (PDF)
  5. Application of Quantum Dots in Biological Imaging
  6. Qdot Nanocrystals
  7. Team demonstrates quantum dots that assemble themselves
  8. Graphene-DNA biosensor selective, simple to create

Also related :

Monodisperse Metal Oxide Nanocrystals :

  1. Size and Shape Controlled Synthesis of Monodisperse Metal Oxide and Mixed Oxide Nanocrystals
  2. Magnetic nanoparticles: synthesis, functionalization, and applications in bioimaging
  3. A cheap and facile route to synthesize monodisperse magnetic nanocrystals and their application as MRI agents
  4. Magnetic Fluorescent Delivery Vehicle Using Uniform Mesoporous Silica Spheres Embedded with Monodisperse Magnetic and Semiconductor Nanocrystals
  5. Synthesis, characterization and magnetic properties of Hexagonal CuCr2Se4 nanoparticles
  6. Magnetic Nanoparticles
  7. Magnetic nanoparticles (Wikipedia)

Further related :

Phase Conjugation :

  1. Selective erasure for multiplexed holograms in photorefractive crystal using phase conjugate mirror
  2. Optical phase conjugation
  3. An Intuitive Explanation of Phase Conjugation
  4. Tuning Phase Stability of Complex Oxide Nanocrystals via Conjugation
  5. Conjugation of DNA to Silanized Colloidal Semiconductor Nanocrystalline Quantum Dots
  6. Optical Phase Conjugation and Its Applications in Biology
  7. Electromagnetic equivalent model for phase conjugate mirror based on the utilization of left-handed material (PDF)
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